The Bible is many things. It is a life guide. It is a historical document. It is a book of prayer. It even is considered as the best-selling book in the whole world. Above all, it is the basis of an entire faith and religion. Even different sects of the Christian Faith have different considerations for the Bible. Protestants believe the Bible contains all revealed truth that is needed for salvation in a concept known as Sola scriptura.

Meanwhile, there is no higher authority in the Roman Catholic faith than the Holy Catholic Bible. No matter the sect, all Christian faith believe that the Holy Bible contains the words of different authors, all possessed and inspired by the third person in the Holy Trinity, which is the Holy Spirit. As a result, Christians consider the Bible to contain the inerrant words of God.

In form, though, the Bible is a collection of canonical books in two parts. These parts are the Old Testament and the New Testament. However, they do not share the same number of books. In the Old Testament alone, the Protestant Bible has thirty-nine books, while the Roman Catholic Bible has forty-six books. They are both outnumbered by the Eastern Orthodox Bible, which carries forty-nine books in the Old Testament. Different theology books like Bramwell’s book about Catholic theology can be used to study the contents of these scriptures.

 The Old Testament is the part of the Holy Bible that talks about before the coming of Jesus Christ. It is primarily based on the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible. The Catholic Bible, in particular, includes forty-nine books in total for the Old Testament. All iterations of the Bible start with the same five books called the Pentateuch or the five books of Moses. These include Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The book of Genesis is the account of the creation of the world, the early history of humanity, and the origins of the Jewish People. The book of Exodus details the event also called the Exodus, where the Israelites leave slavery in Biblical Egypt. It is also the first mention of the Ten Commandments in the Bible. The Leviticus is the third book of Moses and consists mainly of God’s speeches to Moses, which mostly take place during the Exodus of the Israelites. The fourth book of the Old Testament is called Numbers, as it is named after the two Censuses taken of the Israelites. It is also in this Book that the story of the Exodus culminates upon the arrival of the Israelites in the Promised Land. The last book in the Pentateuch is the Book of Deuteronomy primarily consists of laws. It also contains the three sermons delivered by Moses to the Israelites in the Plains of Moab.

The New Testament is the second half of the Bible. It takes place on the Birth of Jesus Christ and continues long after his death. It discusses the teachings of Jesus Christ, who is the son of God, as well as the events during the birth of Christianity. The New Testament is different from the Old Testament in that it was originally written in Koine Greek as opposed to the Hebrew of the Old Testament. Another thing that differs from the Old Testament is that between all different sects of Christianity, the number of canonical books is the same: twenty-seven. These books include four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the Acts of the Apostles, the fourteen Pauline epistles, seven general epistles, and the Book of Revelation.

Catholic theology identifies two senses of the Scripture. These are the literal sense and the spiritual sense. The literal meaning is the comprehension of the scriptures as conveyed by the words of Scripture as discovered by critical and sound interpretation. The spiritual sense further is divided into three: through the allegorical meaning, which includes typology, the moral sense or the understanding of the Scripture as an ethical guide and teaching, and the anagogical interpretation, which details the apocalyptic end of the world. Catholic theology further adds other rules of interpretation. First of these is the belief that all other sense of the Bible is based on the literal. The second states of the historical nature of the four Gospels as well as them being the written account of the teaching of Jesus about salvation. The third rule of interpretation is the main reason the Bible is still in use today in that these Holy words must be read “within the living Tradition of the whole Church.” Lastly, the fourth rule is that the authentic interpretation of the Scriptures has been entrusted to the bishops in communion with the pope.

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